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Preventing Falls in the Elderly
by K.R. Tremblay Jr., and C.E. Barber1 (12/05)
The risk of falling increases with age and is greater for women than for men.
Two-thirds of those who experience a fall will fall again within six months.
A decrease in bone density contributes to falls and resultant injuries.
Failure to exercise regularly results in poor muscle tone, decreased strength, and loss of bone mass and flexibility.
At least one-third of all falls in the elderly involve environmental hazards in the home.
Causes and Prevention
The causes of falls are known as risk factors. Although no single risk factor causes all falls, the greater the number of risk factors to which an individual is exposed, the greater the probability of a fall and the more likely the results of the fall will threaten the person's independence.
Many of these risk factors are preventable. As obvious as it may sound, a lack of knowledge about risk factors and how to prevent them contributes to many falls. Some people believe that falls are a normal part of aging, and as such are not preventable. Lack of knowledge leads to lack of preventive action, resulting in falls.
The risk of falling increases with age and is greater for women than men.
Annually, falls are reported by one-third of all people 65 and older.
Two-thirds of those who fall will fall again within six months.
Falls are the leading cause of death from injury among people 65 or over.
Approximately 9,500 deaths in older Americans are associated with falls each year. The elderly account for seventy-five percent of deaths from falls.
More than half of all fatal falls involve people 75 or over, only 4 percent of the total population.
Among people 65 to 69, one out of every 200 falls results in a hip fracture, and among those 85 or over, one fall in 10 results in a hip fracture.
One-fourth of those who fracture a hip die within six months of the injury.
The most profound effect of falling is the loss of independent functioning. Twenty-five percent of those who fracture a hip require life-long nursing care. About 50 percent of the elderly who sustain a fall-related injury will be discharged to a nursing home rather than return home.
Most falls do not result in serious injury. However, there is often a psychological impact. Approximately 25 percent of community-dwelling people 75 or over unnecessarily restrict their activities because of fear of falling.
The majority of the lifetime cost of injury for people 65 or over can be attributed to falls.
Administration on Aging: www.aoa.dhhs.gov
Aging Network Services: www.agingnets.com
American Academy of Family Physicians: www.aafp.org
American Association of Retired Persons: www.aarp.org
Andrus Gerontology Center: www.usc.edu/dept/gero
Home Modification Resource Center: www.homemods.org
Mayo Clinic: www.mayoclinic.com
National Council on Aging: www.ncoa.org
National Institute on Aging: www.nih.gov/nia
National Osteoporosis Foundation: www.nof.org
National Safety Council: www.nsc.org
Senior Alternatives: www.senioralternatives.org
Senior Friendly: www.senioralternatives.org
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission: www.cpsc.gov
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1 K.R. Tremblay Jr., Colorado State University Extension housing specialist and professor, design and merchandising; C.E. Barber, former Colorado State University professor, human development and family studies. 5/96. Reviewed 12/05.